DNA and I2018-08-24T12:55:40+00:00

What is Genetic Testing?

1. What is 【GENE】?2018-08-23T17:33:20+00:00

Genes are code stored in DNA which are a genetic message of life. They are transcribed and translated to produce different proteins, and these proteins perform various functions of life-sustaining phenomena. The process is called Gene Expression.

Cells can perform different functions through the different performance of genes. Modern biomedicine is to understand the effects of disease on the human body by studying the function of genes, and to develop diagnostic methods or design new drugs for disease-specific genes.

Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.

2. What is【Genetic Test】?2018-08-23T17:33:54+00:00

Genetic test also known as DNA test, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.

Genetic testing can be used to determine a child’s parentage (genetic mother and father) or in general a person’s ancestry or biological relationship between people. In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical tests for the possible presence of genetic diseases, or mutant forms of genes associated with increased risk of developing genetic disorders.

Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The variety of genetic tests has expanded throughout the years. In the past, the main genetic tests searched for abnormal chromosome numbers and mutations that lead to rare, inherited disorders. Today, tests involve analyzing multiple genes to determine the risk of developing specific diseases or disorders, with the more common diseases consisting of heart disease and cancer. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person’s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Several hundred genetic tests are currently in use, and more are being developed.

3. What is the advantage of【Genetic Test】?2018-08-23T17:34:21+00:00

A genetic test might be able to tell you for certain about you or your child’s genetic makeup. For some people, this relief from uncertainty is very important, even if the news is bad. If the news is good, such as a mild prognosis, it can mean a tremendous sense of relief.

A genetic test can help diagnose a genetic condition. When someone has an accurate diagnosis, the appropriate treatment can be given. If a genetic test tells you that you have an increased risk of developing a condition later in life (such as breast cancer) you might be able to go for more regular check-ups or take other measures to keep the risk to a minimum.

The results of a genetic test can provide useful information when planning for future children. If you know you and your partner are at high risk of having a child with a genetic condition, it may be possible to test the unborn child during pregnancy to see if it is affected. Knowing you have an increased risk of having a child with a genetic condition might give you the opportunity to be more mentally and practically prepared.

Because genetic conditions often run in families, information about your genetic makeup might be useful to other family members. If family members are aware that a genetic condition runs in the family, it might prevent them from being misdiagnosed. This information might also be of use to them when they are planning children.

4. Is 【Genetic Test】 accurate?2018-08-23T17:35:11+00:00

Genetic test is more sensitive than general biochemical detection of cancer markers, Computed Tomography Scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. However, the accuracy of genetic testing may vary depending on the gene.

Our genetic testing has been developed over the years and has worked with hospitals for nearly 2,000 cases with an accuracy of over 99.99%. For general cancer diseases, it is also possible to diagnose cancer recurrence at least six months earlier than other current tests.

Therefore, many genetic tests in the field are mainly based on foreign literature for genetic comparison analysis. They have not been put into local clinical research. Although there is still some reference, the genes of foreigners are different from locals. Special attention should be paid when doing genetic testing.

5. Who needs 【Genetic Test】? Is it popular?2018-08-23T17:41:08+00:00

Nowadays, the average number of genetic tests in the United States has exceeded 4 million per year. Doctors have become more accurate in the diagnosis and classification of diseases and have achieved the purpose of preventive medicine.

Since the health screening of genetic testing mainly emphasizes on the concept of preventive medicine, early prevention, early treatment, so we divide the population into:
1. The public
2. High risk group

  • A. People with a family history of genetic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.
  • B. People who are often exposed to the environment containing cancer risk factors.
  • C. Although the current medical disease test cannot be confirmed, it is listed as a highly suspected by doctors.
6. I am healthy. What is the benefit if I get 【Genetic Test】?2018-08-23T17:43:26+00:00

“If there is no family history, there is very little reason for testing for any of these diseases.”

If you do have a family history of Alzheimer’s, certain cancers, or other heritable diseases, however, the decision becomes far more complicated—and personal.

Genetic testing aims to identify abnormalities in your DNA, which may suggest a heightened risk of developing or passing on certain conditions. While a negative test result can “give some reassurance,” a positive one can unearth upsetting news—therefore, patients should always consult a genetic counselor or medical geneticist, and think long and hard about the benefits of knowing.

7. My family is known as high-risk group. Is it necessary to carry out 【Genetic Test】?2018-08-23T17:44:50+00:00

We recommend that it should be done as soon as possible.

Although it is currently known that certain diseases occur due to genetic problems, for example, cancer is also a phenomenon in which one gene is mutated, and this phenomenon of genetic mutation causes a hereditary disease.

However, it does not mean that the children will get the same disease as their parents. Because an individual has no genetic defects can come from the congenital of parents, but also the acquired. The purpose of genetic testing is to allow you to detect changes in fragile genes earlier, to achieve early detection, early prevention and early treatment.

In the case of cancer, any person with congenital genetic defects are more likely to develop cancer than the normal person under the same carcinogenic factors. For example, a daughter born to a breast cancer patient is 15 times more likely to develop breast cancer than the normal person.

However, when genetic mutations produce abnormal cells, genetic testing can detect abnormalities of intracellular DNA and RNA in the early stage of biochemical detection and tomographic imaging earlier than 6 months, or even up to 10 years. It is very important regardless of the prevention or early treatment of cancerous diseases.

8. How often should I do a 【Genetic Test】?2018-08-23T17:45:06+00:00

Theoretically, the genetic test results of healthy people will remain unchanged for life, but because Hong Kong’s environment has many adverse environmental factors, such as air, water, pesticides and other pollution, and bad habits such as eating betel nuts, smoking, drinking, etc. It will destroy the genes in the body and cause diseases.

Therefore, it is recommended that everyone should conduct genetic testing for common diseases as early as possible. Especially for civilized diseases such as asthma, adverse side effects of drugs, depression, etc., to carry out personal health maintenance and disease prevention as soon as possible.

At the same time, to implement preventive medicine in life, especially in cancer prevention, it is recommended to do a genetic test every year to ensure your health.

9. What are the common diseases that are now genetically detectable?2018-08-23T17:47:58+00:00

The most common genetic tests are cancers which is No.1 of death, and rare diseases detection which emphasize eugenics. However, more and more genetic-related diseases will begin to be proactively preventive and medical care through the benefits of genetic testing.

We hope that from now on, personal health management and medical treatment can automatically prevent the development of the disease and even eradicate the disease roots in various ways before the body has any symptoms.

Therefore, it is common to apply various types of tests related to metabolism, immunity, obesity, and degeneration in anti-aging and physical fitness.

On December 23, 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first genetic testing product to assist doctors in screening for heart disease, mental illness, and cancer medications, and to determine drug dosage.

10. Which genetic tests does a healthy person need to do?2018-08-23T17:59:07+00:00

We suggest that healthy people can start with the disease with the highest prevalence of Chinese people. If there are more members of the family with specific diseases, genetic testing should be done as early as possible for these specific diseases to achieve the desired results.

(1) For general male healthy people: It is recommended to do cancer and Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) disease genetic testing.

1. The current cancer gene detection mainly detects three genes of p53, K-ras and APC.

  • A. Cancer gene basis test (p53 gene + K-ras):
    ※p53 gene:
    Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms , is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it prevents cancer formation, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor. As such, p53 has been described as “the guardian of the genome” because of its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation. Its main function is to control cell division and avoid unrestricted cell growth and DNA repair.
    More than 50% of cancer p53 genes are mutated, so when the p53 gene is mutated, there is a risk of cancer, so detecting the presence or absence of p53 gene DNA can be used as a basis for assessing the risk of cancer.

    ※K-ras gene:
    K-ras is a gene that acts as an on/off switch in cell signaling. When it functions normally, it controls cell proliferation. When it is mutated, negative signaling is disrupted. Thus, cells can continuously proliferate, and often develop into cancer. Therefore, it is important to have a gene test on K-ras because it is closely related to many cancers, including lung cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc.

  • B. Colorectal cancer gene detection:
    ※APC gene:
    Colorectal cancer is 3rd of all cancers and are the most common hereditary tumors in men and women. The APC gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and the APC gene mutation can be found in very early colorectal tissues. Some colorectal meat are the precursors of colorectal cancer, and those with this genetic factor have 70~ 80% of the risk move to be colorectal cancer, and the average age is between 40 and 45 years old, meanwhile, the average age of normal people with colorectal cancer is about 60 to 65 years old.
    In addition, once the defective gene is present, the patient has a 50% chance of passing the abnormal gene to the next generation. Therefore, detecting the DNA of the APC gene for mutation can contribute to the risk of assessment and prevention of colorectal cancer.

2. Hereditary hyperlipidemia gene detection mainly detects two genes of LDLR or ApoB.
※LDLR:
The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LDL-R) is a lipoprotein receptor that plays a direct role in lipid metabolism. Patients with heart disease often have an inseparable relationship with ester metabolism, especially with plasma lipoprotein.

※ApoB:
If the ApoB gene is mutated, it will produce ” Abetalipoproteinemia ” or ” Hypolipoproteinemia “. The former is a disorder that interferes with the normal absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins from food; Hypolipoproteinemia is dominant family inherits, because this symptom will reduce the ability of its protein to bind to LDLR, thus leading to the occurrence of hyperlipoproteinemia.

It is currently known that 15% of heart disease patients are caused by genetic abnormalities of LDL-R or ApoB. Once ApoB is elevated, it directly reflected the number of LDL particles in blood, and LDL-R on the cell membrane plays a direct role in receptor and lipid metabolism. Therefore, ApoB or LDL-R genes are important indicators of heart disease.

(2) For female health, besides of p53, K-ras, APC, we also recommend breast cancer and ovarian cancer genes.

1. Breast cancer \ ovarian cancer genetic test:
Both BRCA1/BRCA2 are genes that inhibit cancer, and all of them are autosomal dominant and responsible for repairing DNA. Once a gene mutation occurs, it will cause breast cancer and ovarian cancer.

If women have BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, she has a 90% chance of getting breast cancer. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are also associated with ovarian cancer. According to the literature report, whether there is a family history or age issue, 2 to 6% of all ovarian cancers have BRCA1 mutations, and 3 to 4% have BRCA2 mutations.

11. What should I do once my genetic test report shows some problems? Is there any solution?2018-08-23T17:59:49+00:00

When the genetic test finds abnormality, it means that you have a fragile gene and under a high-risk group of the disease. Although the gene has been mutated, it may not be repaired at this time according to the current biotechnology, but it does not mean that you have already suffered from it.

Since each disease has a different treatment, we recommend:

1. Consult a doctor or professional for personalized health management or even early treatment, and make appropriate adjustments from diet, lifestyle, and environmental improvement.

2. Or carry out chemical anti-cancer measures, including low-dose chemo-prevention, combined with some special health foods or herbal medicines to lower the risk of disease.

3. Have a genetic test every half a year to thoroughly track the state of the disease.

12. Why a person shown low risk on the Genetic Test Report but having cancer few months later?2018-08-23T18:00:20+00:00

The accuracy of genetic testing is vary depending on the gene. Hygeia genetic test (INFor) has been developed over two years and has cooperated with National Taiwan University Hospital for nearly 2,000 cases with an accuracy of over 99.99%.

However, cancer is often caused by a lot of genes, we must emphasize that genetic test can effectively and truly detected those mutated genes earlier for high-risk group of those current known disease.

Therefore, we suggest:

1. For healthy people: After doing genetic test we recommended above, if the gene has a problem but not yet a disease, means that the probability of its disease is relatively high, we will also recommend him to do Telomerase and CK-l9. Because these two tests can help patients monitor whether cancer cells are produced.

2. For people who are already suspected of having cancer:
We recommend client do a genetic test before RNA test, because RNA detection can observe the changes in cancer cells. When the result of both DNA and RNA is (+) positive, it is confirmed to be a cancer patient and must be treated by a specialist/doctor.

13. What is the reason of doing genetic test if the congenital gene only represent 5-10% of cancer?2018-08-23T18:02:02+00:00

A person with congenital defects will be more susceptible to cancer than the normal person under the same carcinogenic factors. For example, a daughter born to a breast cancer patient is 15 times more likely to have breast cancer than normal person. The purpose of genetic test is to have early detection and early prevention and early treatment once detect changes in fragile genes.

In addition, when genetic mutations produce abnormal cells, genetic testing can detect abnormalities in DNA and RNA earlier, which is more than 6 months earlier than traditional biochemical detection and Computed Tomography Scan, even up to 10 months. It is very important to prevent cancer during this period.

14. How Hygeia handle privacy factors on the genetic test report?2018-08-23T18:01:16+00:00

The genetic test report is directly emailed to the examinee. In our laboratory, the genetic test report is classified as the highest confidential document because it involves the privacy.

15. How can I protect myself from insurance company who reject me or ask for improper premiums if my genetic test results show that I am high-risk on cancer?2018-08-23T18:01:40+00:00

This does not happen unless the law allows the insurance company to refuse coverage due to genetic test results.

Genetic test is a boost to self-health awareness. Perhaps insurance companies may increase premiums within a reasonable range. However, the insurance industry is not an exclusive business. Consumers can compare the rates and services and choose the insurance company that suits them.

Genetic Test Procedure

Complete the Genetic Test Application Form. Use brush stick to collect oral cells, safe and no blood draw. Delivery by Hygeia.
World-class recognized laboratories with precision high-end sequencing instruments.
Our gene and medical professionals will be responsible for your report which are accurate and understandable.